He aha nā pūnaewele Spiro?
ʻO kahi hui (kahi i kapaʻiaʻo "spirane") he mea'alapona, kino mele me kahi'ōwili o nā apo keuʻoi aku. Maanei, ua hoʻohuiʻia nā apo i kekahi'āpana hoʻokahi i maʻa mau no nā mea a pau. ʻO ka meaʻoiaʻiʻo, ua laweʻia ka inoa "spiro" mai ka hua'ōlelo Latin Latin spīra,ʻo ia hoʻi ka hua'ōlelo a me ke kānana.
ʻO kaʻano maʻamau o ka pūʻano spiro he bicyclic, heʻelua wale nō kūpikipiki. (e like meʻelua). A iʻole, hiki iā ia ke hāʻawi i kahi'āpana bicyclic e lilo ana i wahi liʻiliʻi o kahi pūnaeweleʻoi aku. Ma waho o keʻano o ka māhele, ua hoʻohuiʻia nā apo a pau ma kahi'ōmoleʻokoʻa hoʻokahi i kū hoʻokahi no nā mea a pau.
Hiki i nā Spirane i kekahi manawa ke piha pono i ka huahua a me ka heterocyclic paha. ʻO Carbocyclic keʻano o nā pūpaʻa he kalapona a pau, akāʻo ka heterocyclic,ʻo ia hoʻi, he hoʻokahi aʻoi aku kaʻole o ke kalapona kala.
Aia kekahi pūnaewele o nā lāʻau lapaʻau i lalo o lākou. Ua heluʻia nā lāʻau lapaʻau ma lalo nei -
1.Buspirone
2.Flusfiklene
3.Fluorescein
4.Phloxine B
5.Fluorescein lisicol
Nāʻano likeʻole o Spiro Kūlana
E like me ko lākouʻano'ōmaʻomaʻo, ua māhele likeʻia ka'āpana i nāʻano pūnaewele'ē aʻe.
1.Carbo-Cyclic Spiro Pū
2.Hetero-cyclic Spiro Pū
3.Polyspiro Pū
4.Nomennclature
ʻO 5.Cityiness
Hoʻohanaʻia nā pūpū Spiro ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa. Hoʻohana nuiʻia kekahi o kēia mau pūnaewele e like me ka pūnaewele meahana no ka noiʻana i ka māla biomedical. Hoʻohanaʻia kēia mau pūnaewele ma keʻano he kāpuni no ke kōkua lapaʻau, ma ke kauʻana ma kahi scaffold.
Nā kūmole kūpono no nā lāʻau lapaʻau ma lalo o nā mea hoʻohālikeʻo Cherira
• Buspirone
ʻO ka helu nui o kēia lāʻau lapaʻauʻo DB00490. ʻO Buspirone ka waihona o ka'āpana azaspirodecanedione,ʻo ia ka agonist receptor a me ka mea hana kaumaha. Eia kekahi,ʻo ka lāʻau lapaʻau maikaʻi ka hiki ke hoʻohālikelikeʻia me ka diazepam.
Hoʻomaʻa pinepineʻia ka lāʻau lapaʻau no ka mālamaʻana i ke kaumaha a me nā maʻiʻino.
• Flusderlene
ʻO ka helu nui o kēia lāʻau lapaʻauʻo DB04842. ʻO keʻano o ka mea liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi,ʻo kēia lāʻau lapaʻau he mea hana i ka'ālika antipsychotic i lōʻihi loa a hiki ke hoʻokomoʻia. Hoʻohanaʻiaʻo Fluspetlene no ka mālamaʻana i ka schizophrenia mau.
• Fluorescein
ʻO ka helu nui o kēia lāʻau lapaʻauʻo DB00693. Ma waho aʻe o ka hoʻohanaʻiaʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā mea hana maikaʻi no nā kumu o waho, ua hoʻohanaʻia kēia lāʻau lapaʻau i mea kōkua no ka trauma a me nā meaʻeha no nā mea hoʻomaha. He hōʻailona'ōmaʻomaʻo-yellow-phthalic i ka wā i kahi kiʻiʻoniʻoni lohi maʻamau. Akā, hiki keʻikeʻia he'ōmaʻomaʻo'ōmaʻomaʻo ma waena o nāʻenehana kūmole e like me ka humoro aque.
• Phloxine B
ʻO ka helu nui o kēia me kēia lāʻau lapaʻauʻo DB13911. ʻO Phloxine B aʻo Phloxine kekahi mea hoʻohui kala. Hoʻohanaʻia ia i nā meaʻono i loko o nā papa e hōʻikeʻike ana (niho), a me he mea hana maʻamau e kōkua ai i ka hoʻohuiʻana i ka momona i nā huahana. I ka hihia ma mua, ua kōkua nā papa i nā poʻe maʻi e noʻonoʻo i nā wahi e makemakeʻia ai nā mea'ē aʻe.
• Nānā i ka lisicol
ʻO ka helu nui o kēia lāʻau lapaʻauʻo DB12030. He kiʻi mole liʻiliʻi ia i hoʻohana mauʻia i nā ho'āʻo no nā kula likeʻole. ʻO ka hōʻailona o Hepatitis, Viral, Human, Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, Hepatic Cirrhosis, Pharmacokinetics and Non-Alcoholic Fatty LiverʻO ka maʻi ka maʻi.

Hōʻike i nā mea a pau 6 nā hualoaʻa