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Pau nā mea e pono aiʻoe eʻike e pili ana i nā pūhui spiro

Pau nā mea e pono aiʻoe eʻike e pili ana i nā pūhui spiro

Hoʻomākaukau i nā pūhui Spiro

ʻO kahi hui punaha he mea hoʻokomoʻia i loko o ia mau mea e hoʻohuiʻia aiʻelua mau mīkini uila e kahi hoʻokahi. Ma keʻano, hiki keʻano likeʻoleʻole nā ​​hanana o nā apo aiʻole keʻano likeʻole, aʻo ka'umena e pili ana i nā apoʻelua he mea spiroomoma (spiral spiral),ʻo ia hoʻi he carbon grade 4 (ʻikeʻia hoʻi he carbon carbon) ʻo ia hoʻi he kānikoni, phosphorus, a arsenic paha. ʻO ka spiro atom ka manawa he carbon carbon quaternary. Hiki i ka hui hui ke hoʻohana i nā māka e kākau i ka helu o nā apo i ke kaʻawale. Aia pū kekahi me ke apo umauma me ka spiro atomula, aʻo ka mea liʻiliʻi e kū i mua o ka helu a hoʻokaʻawaleʻia e kahi kiko.

ʻElua mau apo pepeiao i loko o kahi mole e hoʻokaʻawale i kahi kumu kalapona (i loko o nā pūpū, nā kumu'ē aʻe, e like me ke kinikano, nā phosphorus, arsenic, a me nā mea'ē aʻe). ʻO nā apoʻelua ma ka papaʻelua e pili pono ana i kekahi me kekahi: nā'āpana spiro i hoʻololi ponoʻia he chiial a hiki ke hoʻonāʻia i loko o nā isomers opua (e nānā i ka isomerism). Ma keʻano o keʻano, propadiene H2C = C = CH2 ke kiki o ka spiro māmā, aʻo ka mea like me ka 1,3-propadienediic acid ka mea hana a hiki ke hoʻokaʻawaleʻia iʻelua isomers opiki. kino.

ʻO nā papahana

(1) Ma muli o ka helu o nā mana spiro, hiki ke hoʻohuiʻia ka pūpū spiro i kahi hui spiro hoʻokahi, he dispiro, he spiro triple, a me kahi pūnaewele'āpana e piha ana i nā mana spiro.

(2) E hoʻokuʻuʻia ka hui spiro carbocyclic a me ka pūpū heterocyclic spray e like me kaʻano o ke atom i loko, ai ka manawa i hoʻohuiʻia ke carbon carbon e hoʻokumuʻia ai ka pūhui carbocyclic e kahiʻokoʻa'ē aʻe, ua hoʻohuiʻia kahi hui spete heterocyclic.

(3) E like me keʻano o ke apo, hiki ke hoʻokaʻawaleʻia i loko o nā pūpū spiro pa'ū, maʻamau, aromatic a me aliphatic.

(4) Hoʻohuiʻia heterospirocyclic composite. ʻO ka spiro pūmaena o ka pūhui spiro he kumu carbon carbon a iʻole nā ​​mea'ē aʻe e like me Si, N, P, Ge a like like. Inā he'ōpana keleawe ka spiro atom, ua hoʻokumuʻia ka pilina paʻaʻana, a ua kapaʻia kēlāʻano hui pūpū e like me ka huila heterocyclic.

ʻO ka Polymeric spiro pū

ʻO ka hui polymeric spiro he hui pūʻia oʻelua mau māmā spiro aʻekolu paha. Ke kohoʻana i kahi hui pūpū,ʻo kahi'ōlelo hoʻolaha e hoʻohuiʻia di-, tri-, tetra-, ..., a me nā mea'ē aʻe i ka inoa,ʻo ia hoʻi ka heluna o nā pūmehu spiro i loaʻa ma waena o nā apo. Ua helu pūʻia nā mana o ka pūhui puna. ʻO nā hua'ōlelo o kahi'āpana polyspirocyclic e hoʻomaka me kahi mole pepeiao e pili ana i kahi'ōmole spiro, i kapaʻia he apo. Hiki i kēia mau molela polyspirocyclic ke loaʻa nā apoʻelua aʻoi aʻe paha a pili i kahi pūhui multi-spirocyclic. I waena o lākou, hoʻokahi wale nō hākōpikaʻokoʻa e pili ana i kekahi. ʻO ka nomenclature i loko o ka apo kekona e hoʻomakaʻia e kaʻokoʻa ma hope o ka'ōmole spiro, i kapaʻia e like me ka helu 1, a heluʻia ka mole i hoʻomaka me ka mole.

ʻElua aʻoi aku paha nā apo o ke apo,ʻo ka helu hoʻomaka o ke apo kekona e loaʻa kekahiʻano koho. Ke heluʻia ka spiroatom mua, pono e hoʻohuiʻia nā pūpili spiro mulimuli i ka meaʻoi loa. Helu helu. Inā paha he pūpū me nā apoʻelua, hoʻokahi me nā mana 6 aʻo kekahi me nā pūnaewele 8. Hoʻomakaʻia ka heluʻana me ke apo o nā 6 mau mana, no ka mea ma hope o ka heluʻana, e heluʻia ka spiroatom 6. Inā hoʻomaka ka wili i nā'āpana 8, e heluʻia ka spiroatom 8. Ua hoʻoholoʻia ke kuhikuhi o ka helu e spiroatom (e hoʻomaka ana i ka spiroatoma mua o ka pēpē pani mua i heluʻia). E hoʻohālikelike ka hoʻomakaʻana o ka heluʻana i ka heluʻana ma kahiʻaoʻao, a inā heʻuʻuku ka helu ma mua o ka helu ma kekahiʻaoʻao, ua kohoʻia ke kohoʻana. Hoʻohanaʻia ka kuhikuhiʻana me ka helu liʻiliʻi e hoʻomaka i ka inoa. Ma ka'ōhumu o ka'ōpili ma hope,ʻaʻole nui ka nui o ka helu. I kekahi mau kumu, e hoʻolālāʻia nā papahanaʻelua,ʻekolu,ʻehā, aʻoi aku paha i ka helu likeʻole me kahi o ka kuhikuhiʻana. E kohoʻia ke kohoʻana o ke kuhikuhi heluʻana e ke kaʻina heluʻana i ka loaʻaʻana o kahi helu'ē aʻe o nā'ōmehe kānalua, a ua kohoʻia ke kuhikuhi o nā hāʻina o nā hāpana helu haʻahaʻa. Eia kekahi laʻana, ināʻo ka pūnaewele helu i hoʻokahiʻaoʻao,ʻo ka helu o kēlā me kēia spiroatomaʻo 3, 5, 7, 10, a me ka helu o nā spiroomoma ma kekahiʻaoʻao'ē aʻe,ʻo ia ka 3, 5, 7, 9, a laila ka kuhikuhi o ka heluʻelua. kohoʻia. . I kēia hihia, ma ka kuhikuhi o ka helu mua,ʻo ka helu ma waena o nā mau māmāʻelua,ʻo ia ka 7 a me ka 10, a ma kaʻaoʻao kuhikuhi'ē aʻe,ʻo 7 a me 9. ʻO ka heluʻana o kēlā mīkini pale ma hope o ka meaʻaʻole ia he mea nui, a ua hoʻoholoʻia ka kuhikuhi heluʻia e ke kuhikuhi o ka helu 9.

Ma ka inoa inoa o nā mīkini'āpana maha,ʻo ka helu mua ma nā māka e hōʻike ana i kaʻoi ma ka apo mua e pili kokoke ana i ka'ōpō spiro ka helu helu. ʻO nā koena i hōʻike i ka helu o nā mana ma waena o nā pūmole spiro, aiʻole nā ​​mana ma ka apo uila. Hoʻokaʻawaleʻia kēlā me kēia helu e kahi manawa (manawa Pelekānia). I kēia hiʻohiʻona,ʻelua mauʻoho (helu helu 1 a me 2) i mua o ka spiroatom (3) mua. ʻAʻohe mana ma waena o 3 a me 4 spiroatoms, aʻo ia ka mea no nā spiroomoms ma 4 a me 5, 5 a me 6. Elua mau pua ma ke apo hope lua, 6 a me 5, 5 a me 4, a aia kekahi ma waena o 4 a me 3.

No laila, ua loaʻa ka hāʻina [2.0.0.0.2.1.1.1]. I loko o ka hiʻohiʻona ma ka'ākau,ʻelua mau spiroomoma, no laila ua hoʻomaka ka inoa dispiro. Ma ka apo mua mua,ʻelua mau ahua, e hōʻike ana i ka inoa dispiro [2. ʻO ka mea'ē aʻe, aia hoʻokahi a meʻehā mau mana ma kēlā me kēia pahu mīkini waena ma waena o nā spiroomomsʻelua, e hōʻike ana i ka inoaʻelua inoa kamehameha [2.1.3 5. ʻO ka lua o ka spiroatom, helu 5 i heluʻia, ua hoʻohuiʻia e like me ke ala e hiki ke hālāwai i ka helu o nā mana ma hope o ka helu o nā mana ma ka apo kekona,ʻo ka manawa hope e hoʻohui i nā mana 9 a me 10 ma waena o 3 a me 5 spiroatoma A laila e hoʻohui i kekahi alkane me ka ke helu hoʻokahi o nā mana o ka hui pū, decane, inoaispiro [2.1.3 5 .2 3] decane i hōʻikeʻia e ka inoa.

ʻO ka nomenclature nui o nā pūhui spiro
ʻO ka helu monospirocyclic e hoʻoholo i ka inoa o ka makua hydrocarbon e like me ka helu helu o nā kumuma kalapona i loko o ke kāpili'ōpili; ʻo nā mana a pau ma ka'āpana spiro i heluʻia ma ke kauoha o ke apo liʻiliʻi a me ke apo nui a hāpaiʻia nā mana spiro; a laila ua ukaliʻia e nā pale kīkoʻo. ʻO ka huahelu helu o ka apo piha a pau ke heluʻia e ka helu o nā carbon carbon i waena o nā mana spiro hoʻokahi, me mua aʻe o ka inoa o ka hamo waipili e pili ana i ka apo piha; ua hoʻokaʻawaleʻia nā huahelu e kahi kiko haʻahaʻa, ma keʻano: snail [a, b]'aekane.

Kau ke kino

ʻO ka hopena anomeric o ke kani heterospiral,ʻo ia keʻano o nā manaʻelua a me nā pai o nā electrons i loko o ka hoʻololiʻana i kahiʻaoʻao e hoʻohaʻahaʻa ai i ka manawa o ka mole a hoʻoemi i ka manaʻona pūmole. Ma ka 1968, hoʻomaka mua nāʻimi noiʻi i kahi hana. I ko lākou hoʻonaʻauaoʻana i ka acetal bicyclic, uaʻike lākouʻo nā meaʻelua i ka mahele ma lalo nei he 57% o ka isomer cis a me ka 43% o ka isomer trans i loko o ka hoʻonaliʻuʻana ma 80 C. ka transite isomer ratioʻO ka isomer e paʻa me kahi ka hoʻokele waiwai o 0.71 kJ / mol. Ma muli o ka hopena anomeric o ka isomer cis,ʻaʻohe mea e like me ka isomer trans.

Nānā

ʻO kekahi pūnaewele kāpili e loaʻa i keʻano o ke koʻi axial. Hiki ke hoʻohālike i nā'ōpū o ke akua, keʻole lākou e nele i nā mea likeʻoleʻehā e pono ai ke mālama i ka lāʻau. I ka likeʻana o nā apoʻelua, ua hāʻawi ka pūnaewele CIP i kahi kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe e hoʻonui i ka hoʻonuiʻana o ke apo hoʻokahi a me kekahi kī'ē aʻe o ka mea nui. Hiki ke hoʻohanaʻia keʻano likeʻole o ke apo.

Hiki ke hoʻohālikeʻia nā pūnaewele Cyclic e nā pae hoʻohālikelike:

• Aliveclic pū

ʻO kēia kekahi mea pāʻani,ʻo ia ka mea aliphatic a me ka hui cyclic. Loaʻa iā lākou i hoʻokahi aʻoi aku paha nā mīkini pahu kīʻaha, aʻaʻole hoʻi i hoʻomahaʻia, akā,ʻaʻole'āpana ke apo.

• Naphthenic

E like me ka nui o ke apo, hiki ke hoʻohuiʻia nā lāpili i ka liʻiliʻi, ka liʻiliʻi a me ka nui. 'Oiʻi kaʻuʻukuʻo Cyclopropane a me ka cyclobutane. ʻO ka cyclopentane maʻamau, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, a me ka cyclooctane i cyclotridecane he nui ka nui, a ua nui ka nui o nā mea nui.

ʻO Cycloolefin

ʻO kēia ka hydrocarbon cyclic e loaʻa ana i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa lua carbon-carbon. ʻO nā monoolefinsʻonika liʻiliʻi he cyclopropene, cyclobutene, cyclopentene a cyclohexene,ʻoiai he poʻe cyclopropadiene cyclopropadiene, cyclobutadiene, cyclopentadiene. E kali. Hiki ke hoʻohuiʻia kekahi o nā'ololinalina, e like me cyclobutene a cyclopentene, e like me nā monomers e hana i nā polymers.

• Ka hydrocarbon aromoku

ʻO nā kinona momona aʻoi aku ka nuiʻo Benzene a me kona mau homologues e like me toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene a like like. I loko o nā meaʻala maikaʻi,ʻaʻole kekahi o nā hanana benzene, akā,ʻo nā carbon carbon i loko o ia mau mea, ua hoʻololiʻia e ka meaola, oxygen, sulfur a me nā kumu. Kāhea mākou iā lākou he heterocycles, e like meʻelima yuan e like me furan. Aia ka'ōniwi i ka oxygen atom aʻo ka pyrrole kahi i loko o ka meaola hauā.ʻO ka'ōpelu kahi pūpū sulfur a me like.

A hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale i nā meaʻono i:

• Monocyclic aromaline wai
• Polycarlic aromatic hydrocarbon
ʻO nā hydrocarbons aromasona me keʻano o keʻano kaula keʻanoʻia he mau kiwi aliphatic, aʻo nā hydrocarbons o nā aliphatic maʻamau he'ekoluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, a like like.
• ka papahana hōkū

Loaʻa iā ia he'ōniʻona nani i loaʻaʻole i ka lou heterocyclic a iʻole ke pani. ʻO ka hapanui o lākou he meaʻike a he lāʻau kino paha. ʻO ka māmā o kēia nāphthalene, meʻelua mau mea momona, a me ka ruthenium pūpū tricyclic a me ka phenanthrene.

ʻO nā'ōpiliʻenehanaʻeleʻele me nā polapoʻole i loaʻa i loko o ka pahuhu ahi a me nā mea hoʻolimalima. Hoʻomākaukau pū lākou i nā meaʻai ma ka hopena pauʻole (e like me ke engine a me ka mea puhi ahi, i ka manawa e'ā ai ke ahi i ka hopena biomass, a me nā mea'ē aʻe). Eia kekahi laʻana, ua hanaʻia ma ka hopena pauʻole o nā mea puhi momona e like me ka wahie, ke kahu ahi, ka momona, a me ka paka. Loaʻa nō hoʻi i loko o kaʻiʻo i puhiʻia.

ʻO ka'āpana hoʻohālikeʻo ka'āpanaʻeleʻele ma luna oʻekolu mau apo i hoʻohaʻahaʻaʻia ka haʻahaʻa a me ka hawewe haʻahaʻa i ka wai. Ke piʻi ka mole kaumaha, hiki i ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa a me ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa o ka huhū. ʻO ka pūmole aromalima polycyclic bicyclic he haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a me ka hawewe. Loaʻa ka loaʻaʻana o nā meaʻeleʻele momona i ka lepo a i loko o nā meaʻaʻahu ma mua o ka wai a me ka ea. Eia naʻe,ʻike pinepineʻia nā pūmole aromalikaliki polycyclic i nā meaʻoi aku i hoʻokuʻuʻia i ka lewa.

Ua hoʻohālikelikeʻia he mau'āpana aromaline polycyclic he carcinogen. Hōʻike nā hōʻike hoʻokolohua hōʻailonaʻike i ka lōʻihi o kaʻikeʻana i nā haʻina kiʻekiʻe o nā pūnaehana aromalikō polycyclic hiki ke hoʻopili i ka maʻi kanikau o ka maʻi, ka maʻi kanulau, ka maʻi'epū a me ke kanesa ate. Hiki i nā'enela melekila ke hoʻopau i nā meaʻanoʻano i loko o ke kino, e hoʻoulu i ka uluʻana o nā pūnaehana kanesa a hoʻonui i ka hopena o ka maʻi kanesa.

Ke hoʻonuiʻia ke kaumaha o ka lāʻau kaumaha, ua hoʻonuiʻia ka kinoʻano o ka mea polycyclic aromalā, a ua ho'ēmiʻia ka mea'awaʻaha nui. ʻO ka polycyclic aromatic compound, Benzo [a] pyrene (Benzo [a] pyrene),ʻo ia ke kino kino mua mua eʻikeʻia.

noi

Nā mea hoʻolaha koʻikoʻi

ʻO ka kinikini o ka polymer i ka manawa o ka polymerization a me ka hoʻoikaikaʻana e hanaʻia e ka ikaika o van der Waals ma waena o nā molikū monomer i loko o ka moku wai a iʻole nā ​​kinolikū lōʻihi i hoʻopuniʻoleʻia, aʻo ka lōʻihi ma waena o nā molekila he nui; Ma hope o ka polymerization aiʻole ke kuʻuluaʻana,ʻo ka lōʻihi o ka hoʻopaʻaʻana ma waena o nā wae hoʻohālikelike ka hopena o ka nui o ka polymer. Ua'ōleloʻiaʻo ka hoʻokahuli i kekahi manawa he mea make i ka polymer, e like me ka hoʻouluʻana i ka ulu o ka polymer, hoʻololi, a emi iho ka hana holoʻokoʻa. No ka hoʻoponoponoʻana i ka pilikia nui o ka hoʻopiʻiʻana i ka pilikia o polymer, ua hana nā chemists i nā hana hoʻokaeʻole, akā hiki ke hoʻopau waleʻia a hikiʻole ke hoʻopau loa i ka hoʻolālā hua. A hiki i ka 1972, Bailey et al. ua hoʻomohala i kahi hui spiro pū aʻikeʻia ua hoʻohuiʻia kēia mau pū. Ke hōʻoleʻole ka leo, hoʻonuiʻia. ʻO ka loaʻaʻana o nā monomers kua hoʻonuiʻia ka mea iʻimi i ka hoihoi o nā meaʻepekema, a ua nui ka huliʻana i hanaʻia. Ua lilo nā monomers nui i mea hana paʻa i nā mea polymer. ʻO nā pūhui i kūkuluʻia e like me ka spiro orthoester a me ka sphor orthocarbonate he mau monomers ka hoʻonui nui a ua hoʻohanaʻia i ka hoʻomākaukauʻana i nā mea hana ikaika loa, nā hana hana kiʻekiʻe, nā mea polymergradable polymer a me nā mea hana polikino. Ke hoʻololiʻana i nā polymers kumuhana a me keʻano o nā oligomers i nā hui hana.

Ke koho elele

ʻO ke kino o ka mea hoʻomehana iʻole eʻole e hoʻomehanaʻia ai ka mālamalama a me ka nalu o ka hoʻomaʻamaʻaʻana i ka mālamalama a me ka maikaʻi o ke kauʻana o ke kukui ma luna o ka hanana. Loaʻa ka uluʻana i nā molikino me nā'ōlili koʻikoʻi a me nā pūnaehana hoʻohuihui, kahi hoʻonui i ka hopena o ka hoʻolālā kelepona a me ka coplanarity o nā molecule, kahi waiwai e hoʻonui ai i ka maikaʻi o ka fluorescence. He nui nā mea lapalapa manu-pouli. ʻO nāʻano nui: spiro ring, poly-p-phenylene vinylene, polythiophene, polythiadiazole a me nā hui pūhui hoʻohui. Aia ma waena o lākou, nā pūhui aromalima spirocyclic he mau pūnaehana hoʻohui nui a me ka maikaʻi maikaʻi a me ka coplanarity. He mea maʻalahi ka polokalamu EL ma ke kaʻina hana aʻaʻole e koi i nā mea hana maʻalahi, no laila hiki hiki ke hoʻemi i ke kumukūʻai hana i loko o ka wā a e hoʻomākaukau koke i nā pūnaewele nui.

pesticide

ʻAʻole hiki ke maʻalahi ka mea hoʻokomo me ka hui pūnaewele i loko o ka hetero atom no ka hoʻokumuʻana i ke kūpaʻa ma muli o kā lākouʻano kūikawā o ka hana, a ua nui ka nānā i ka uluʻana o nā pesticides. Eia kekahi laʻana: Rudi et al. ua hōʻikeʻiaʻo 3,9-dichloro-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro [5.5] undecane-3,9-dioxide a me sulfide Hydrogen e hoʻohui i kahi hui spiro palapala, 3,9-dihydro-3,9-dithio-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphospho [5.5] ʻikeʻole. ʻO kāna huahana, heʻano hou o nā'ōpokipipipi phosphate a me nā herbicides, hiki iā ia ke lawe pono i nā mīmū, nā mea'ūlū, a me nā mea'ē aʻe mai ka huapalaoa, ka palaoa, ka'ūni a me ka soya.